Feng Lu, Xiaowu Chen, and Yoichi Sato: “Appearance-Based Gaze Estimation via Uncalibrated Gaze Pattern Recovery”. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 26, Issue 4, pp. 1543-1553, 2017.
Aiming at reducing the restrictions due to person/scene dependence, we deliver a novel method that solves appearance-based gaze estimation in a novel fashion. First, we introduce and solve an “uncalibrated gaze pattern” solely from eye images independent of the person and scene. The gaze pattern recovers gaze movements up to only scaling and translation ambiguities, via nonlinear dimension reduction and pixel motion analysis, while no training/calibration is needed. This is new in the literature and enables novel applications. Second, our method allows simple calibrations to align the gaze pattern to any gaze target. This is much simpler than conventional calibrations which rely on sufficient training data to compute person and scene-specific nonlinear gaze mappings. Through various evaluations, we show that: 1) the proposed uncalibrated gaze pattern has novel and broad capabilities; 2) the proposed calibration is simple and efficient, and can be even omitted in some scenarios; and 3) quantitative evaluations produce promising results under various conditions.